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What to do If I can’t pay my Taxes by October 15th

student seated leaning back resting his head with his hands in the back of his head
So many people think all is lost when they can't pay their taxes by October 15th and just decide not to file. The worst thing you can do on October 15th, is throw up your arms in exasperation and not file!! This is when things can quickly go from bad to worse. There are also several strategies to pay the taxes and keep the IRS off your back and not knocking on your front door.

Are you wondering “What can I do If I can’t pay my Taxes by October 15th”? Many people think all is lost when they can’t pay their taxes by October 15th. Then they decide not to file. The worst thing you can do on October 15th is throw up your arms in frustration and not file!! This is when things can quickly go from bad to worse. 

Hopefully, you filed an Extension back before April 15th, but if you didn’t see my other Article, “The Most Common IRS Penalties and How to Avoid Them” to understand the penalties and interest that has already been adding up on your account with the IRS.

Make Sure to at Least File your Tax Return (Even if you Owe)

The worst thing you can do is keep the IRS in the dark as to what is going on. ALSO, if you file your tax return by October 15th and at least ‘admit’ or ‘disclose’ what you owe. There are options you can employ in the first 90 days. If you don’t, the IRS assumes the worst. They will then start a vicious expensive attack to find out what is going on.

Now I realize it may scare you to file a return with taxes you can’t pay. You are still paying interest and penalties under the “Failure to Pay” provision (see below). However, immediately they ALSO assess you  under the “Failure to File” penalty when you don’t file. Here’s how this onerous penalty works:

  • “Failure to File” Penalty accrues at the rate of 5% per month or part of a month (to a maximum of 25%) on the amount of tax your return should show you owe. (If both the Failure to File and Failure to Pay penalties apply, the Failure to File penalty drops to 4.5% per month (or part thereof) so the total combined penalty remains at 5%.)
  • Then it starts to Snowball…The maximum combined penalty for the first five months is 25%. Thereafter the failure to pay penalty can continue at 1/2% per month for 45 more months (an additional 22.5%). Thus, the combined penalties can reach a total of 47.5% over time. Both of these penalties are in addition to the interest you will pay for late payment.

How much does it cost me in Penalties and Interest on the Taxes?

Filing your tax return by October 15th also has an extra ancillary benefit (if you’ll let me try to look at the glass 1/2 full a little bit), you now KNOW how much you really owe! This is powerful information. Many times the ‘damage’ isn’t as you may think. The stress of ‘not knowing’ is far worse than having a figure in mind to work towards.

Thus, MAKE SURE you still file by October 15th so that you can start thinking about payment arrangements and have a ‘reality check’ as to how much the tax bill will be including penalties and interest. Here’s how the interest and penalties are calculated on what you owe since April 15th, AND continuing thereafter until the bill is paid.

  • Interest due – The interest on any unpaid taxes accrues at the annual rate of six percent (6%). Not too bad, but it’s the penalty that will catch up to you.
  • “Failure to Pay” Penalty due – This penalty accrues at the rate of only one-half a percent (1/2%) per month or part of a month (to a maximum of 25%) on the amount shown as due on the return.

What are My Options to Pay?

So you still owe taxes, AND you know it’s going to snowball- It’s time to take proactive action! Do not put your head in the sand and hope the problem goes away. Here are several things you need to do that I discuss more fully below:

  1. Consider claiming undue hardship and an Extension to Pay
  2. Borrow money from anyone possible
  3. Apply for an Installment Agreement
  4. Consider an Offer in Compromise

Undue Hardship “Extension to Pay”

It’s important to remember that an extension of time to file your return does not mean you have an extension of time to pay your tax bill. An extension of time for payment may be available. However, if you can show payment would cause “undue hardship,” as discussed below. You will avoid the failure to pay penalty if an extension is granted, but you will still be charged interest. If you qualify, you will be given an extra six months to pay the tax due on your tax return. If the IRS determines a “deficiency,” i.e., that you owe taxes in excess of the amount shown on your return, the undue hardship extension can be as long as 18 months and in exceptional cases another 12 months can be tacked on.

However, no extension will be granted if the deficiency was the result of negligence, intentional disregard of the tax rules, or fraud, and it comes with at least 3 important requirements to consider:

  • To establish undue hardship it is not enough to show that it would just be inconvenient to pay your tax when due. For example, if you would have to sell property at a “sacrifice” price you may qualify. If a market exists, having to sell property at the current market price is not viewed as resulting in an undue hardship.
  • You would have to show that you do not have enough cash and assets convertible into cash in excess of current working capital to meet your tax obligations. You would also have to show you cannot borrow the amount needed except on terms that would inflict serious loss and hardship.
  • To qualify for an extension, you have to provide security for the tax debt. The determination of the kind of security—such as a bond, filing a notice of lien, mortgage, pledge, deed of trust, personal surety, or another form of security—will depend on the particular circumstances involved. Whenthey grant your application for an extension you must deposit any collateral agreed upon with the IRS. They will not require collateral if you have no assets.

Form 1127 is used to apply for an Extension to Pay. A statement of assets and liabilities must be attached as well as an itemized list of receipts and disbursements for the 3 months preceding the tax due date.

Borrowing Money to Pay Taxes

If you don’t think you can get an extension of time to pay your taxes, borrow money from anyone you can. It will certainly be cheaper than paying the IRS interest and penalties over the long haul. Loans from relatives or friends are often the simplest method to pay the bill. One advantage of such loans is that the interest rate will probably be low, but you must also consider that loans over $10,000 at below-market interest rates may trigger tax consequences. Where loans from individuals are not available, a loan from a bank or other commercial source could be sought, but such loans are not likely to be made on favorable terms to a hard-pressed taxpayer. Moreover, interest on a loan to pay taxes is nondeductible personal interest.

In contrast, if you can take out a home equity loan and use the proceeds to pay off your tax debts you will probably be paying at a lower rate than with other types of loans. The interest payments will be deductible even if the loan proceeds aren’t used in connection with the house.

Home equity loans are, of course, not an option for everyone and they may be too time-consuming in some situations. It is relatively quick and easy to use credit cards or debit cards to pay the income tax bill whether you file your income tax return by mailing a paper copy or by computer. Several companies are authorized service providers for purposes of accepting credit card or debit card payments. They can only use the cards the IRS approves. However, as with other loans from businesses, credit card loans are likely to be at relatively high-interest rates and the interest is not deductible. Moreover, the service providers also charge a fee based on the amount you are paying.

Installment Agreement Request

Another way to defer your tax payments is to request the IRS to enter into an installment payment agreement with you. You can make this request on Form 9465 or by applying for a payment agreement online. The IRS charges a fee for installment agreements. They will deduct the fees from your first payment after they approve your request. Form 9465 requires less information than the hardship extension application. If the liability is under $50,000, they will not require you to submit financial statements. Even if they grant your request they will still charge you interest on any tax you do not pay by the due date. The late payment penalty will be half the usual rate (1/4% instead of 1/2%), if you file your return by the due date (including extensions).

The fee for entering into an installment agreement is $105, except that the fee is $52 when the taxpayer pays by way of a direct debit from the taxpayer’s bank account. Notwithstanding the method of payment, the fee is $43 if the taxpayer is a low-income taxpayer. A low-income taxpayer is an individual who falls at or below 250% of the dollar criteria established by the poverty guidelines updated annually in the Federal Register by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Note that you can do an installment agreement request after your hardship extension period expires. Additionally, the IRS has the authority to enter into an installment agreement calling for less than full payment of the tax liability over the term of the agreement. It may do so if it determines such an agreement will facilitate partial collection of the liability. The IRS may also terminate an installment agreement. If the information you provided to the IRS in applying for the agreement is inaccurate, incomplete or the IRS believes collection of the tax involved is in jeopardy. Finally, the IRS can even modify or terminate an installment agreement if any of the following occur:

  • you miss an installment.
  • you fail to pay another tax liability when it’s due.
  • you fail to provide an update of your financial condition where the IRS makes a reasonable request for you to do so.
  • The IRS determines that your financial condition has significantly changed.

The IRS must give you 30 days’ notice before altering, modifying, or terminating the installment agreement. The notice must explain its reasons for the action. This notice requirement does not apply when collection of the tax is in jeopardy. Here is the IRS website on the basics of the Installment Agreement Request: https://www.irs.gov/businesses/small-businesses-self-employed/streamlined-processing-of-installment-agreements

Beware and don’t get ambitious!! A $5,000 penalty applies to any person who submits an application for an installment agreement. If any portion of the submission is either based on a position which the IRS has identified as frivolous, or reflects a desire to delay or impede the administration of federal tax laws. The IRS may also treat that portion of the submission as if it had never been submitted. However, they clearly aim the penalty at those who abuse the process. It should not deter taxpayers with legitimate applications from using the installment agreement process.

Filing an Offer in Compromise (“OIC”)

The OIC is essentially the process of ‘cutting a deal’ with the IRS. You’re basically stating to the IRS you can’t afford to pay your taxes. You are also asking for them to reduce the amount you owe, the interest, penalties, or all three. Now it sounds easy, and you’re in a tough situation right? The IRS will certainly want to negotiate with you. Not so fast my friend.

This process takes a long time and it is essentially based on your ability to pay. They are going to go through everything you own, and I mean everything. They will also look at your income, expenses and determine what they think you can and should pay. It is not a fun, easy or quick process.

To make matters worse, there are thousands of individuals and companies scamming taxpayers. They are using ‘too good to be true’ promises that they can settle your debt for pennies on the dollar. I love how they typically have a commercial showing a couple sitting by a pool and palm trees in Florida claiming they owed the IRS $200,000 or more and settled for less than $5,000. It’s crazy out there! Be careful. Make sure to ‘pay as you go’, use a reputable law firm or accounting firm. Also, don’t pay any big fees up front. Moreover, constantly monitor the process. You can even call the IRS yourself to see how your Offer is moving through the system. I have met so many people taken advantage of in this process. They end up still owing the IRS and losing thousands of dollars to some scam artist.

Here it the IRS website that can give you some basics about the process and what to expect: https://www.irs.gov/payments/offer-in-compromise

Avoiding more Serious Consequences

Many taxpayers hide their heads in the sand when they run into difficulties by failing to file their tax returns. Tax liabilities do not go away if left unaddressed. Remember, it is always important that you file a properly prepared return even if full payment cannot be made. Include as large a partial payment as you can with the return. Then start working with the IRS for a hardship extension or installment agreement as soon as possible. The alternative will include escalating penalties, plus the risk of having them assess liens  against your assets and income. Down the road, the collection process will also include seizure and sale of your property. In many cases, you can avoid these tax nightmares by taking advantage of the arrangements that the IRS offers. 

I know this is a difficult topic, but if you are in this predicament and need to discuss the situation further, please contact an attorney or CPA in our office. They can discuss the situation with you.

Interested in Learning More:

* To sign up for Mark’s weekly Free Newsletter and receive his Free E-Book “The Ultimate Tax Strategy Guide – 30 Steps to Saving the Most Money on Your Taxes” visit www.markjkohler.com.

Mark J. Kohler is a CPA, Attorney, co-host of the PodCasts “The Main Street Business Podcast” and “The Directed IRA Podcast”, and the author of “The Business Owner’s Guide to Financial Freedom- What Wall Street Isn’t Telling You” and, “The Tax and Legal Playbook- Game Changing Solutions For Your Small Business Questions”, as well as several other well-known books. He is also the CFO of Directed IRA Trust Company, and a senior partner at the law firm KKOS Lawyers.


Mark Kohler

Mark Kohler

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